Transparency International-Russia unveiled multibillion-dollar violations in public procurement within the road industry, in the cities where the 2018 World Cup will be held. In total, the organisation studied 1535 purchases in 12 regions of Russia and found violations in 435 purchases (28%), said to amount to around $1.6 billion. The majority of violations (66%) are related to officials imposing additional requirements on participants of procurement, leading to limited competition. It claims that the violations identified are systemic, both on the part of customers and contractors. More information on Crime Russia.